The architecture of a LAN can be considered as a set of layered protocol, each layer describes a set of functions. The protocols defined for a LAN primarily deals with transmission of a block of data within the LAN. In OSI terms, the higher layer protocols are totally independent of the LAN architectures. Hence, only lower order layers are considered for the design of the LAN architecture. The physical layer of the LAN architecture is equivalent to the physical layer of the OSI. The data link layer of the LAN is split into two layers. One is the Medium Access Control layer (MAC) and the other is the Logical Link Control layer (LLC).The IEEE 802 committee had formulated the standards for the LAN.

Read more: local access network design

The OSI Model and LAN Access
Because there are different types of LANs, both physical topology and logical topology, different methods have been devised to access these networks. Layer 2 of the OSI model has to handle datagram from layer 3 and prepare them to enable Layer 1 to convert the bits of the frame to signals and send them out.

The implementation of the Ethernet protocol can be done without much education of it, and it's why more businesses today use it as their primary LAN protocol. 
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